ISCO-88-COM
 
Código Calificación
Nivel
 
International Standard Classification of Occupations de la OIT
 
1 Miembros del poder ejecutivo y de los cuerpos legislativos y personal directivo de la administración pública y de empresas

Legislators, senior officials and managers determine, formulate, direct or advise on government policies, as well as those of special-interest organisations, formulate laws, public rules and regulations, represent governments and act on their behalf, oversee the interpretation and implementation of government policies and legislation, or plan, direct, and coordinate the policies and activities of enterprises or organisations, or their internal departments or sections.

Tasks performed by legislators, senior officials and managers usually include: determining, formulating or advising on policies of national, state, regional or local governments; formulating laws, public rules and regulations; representing governments and acting on their behalf; overseeing the interpretation and implementation of government policies and legislation; performing similar tasks on behalf of political parties, trade unions, and other special-interest organisations; planning, directing and coordinating the policies and activities of enterprises or organisations, or their internal departments or sections. Supervision of other workers may be included.

Occupations in this major group are classified into the following sub-major groups:
11 Legislators and senior officials
12 Corporate managers (1)
13 General managers (2)

Note
In some case where specific professional, technical or operational skills and knowledge may be required of workers at legislative, administrative or managerial level, it may be difficult to decide whether a particular job belongs in this or another major group. In such cases, additional information on the main tasks of the job in question is essential. If the main tasks require the operational application of specific professional knowledge or a particular technical skill, then the job belongs in a different major group. If, however, professional knowledge or technical skill serve only as a basis for legislative, administrative or managerial tasks, then the job belongs in this major group. For example, if the main tasks of a job consist of diagnosing and treating illnesses, the job belongs in Major group 2, Professionals. However, if one of the main tasks is to allocate research and development funds on the basis of medical knowledge, then the job belongs in this major group.

Footnotes:

(1) This group is intended to include persons who - as directors, chief executives or department managers - manage enterprises or organisations, or departments, requiring a total of three or more managers.

(2) This group is intended to include persons who manage enterprises, or in some cases organisations, on their own behalf, or on behalf of the proprietor, with some non-managerial help and the assistance of no more than one other manager who should also be classified in this sub-major group as, in most cases, the tasks will be broader than those of a specialised manager in a larger enterprise or organisation. Non-managerial staff should be classified according to their specific tasks.
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2 Profesionales científicos e intelectuales

Professionals increase the existing stock of knowledge, apply scientific or artistic concepts and theories, teach about the foregoing in a systematic manner, or engage in any combination of these three activities. Most occupations in this major group require skills at the fourth ISCO skill level.

Tasks performed by professionals usually include: conducting analysis and research, and developing concepts, theories and operational methods, and advising on or applying existing knowledge related to physical sciences including mathematics, engineering and technology, and to life sciences including the medical profession, as well as to social sciences and humanities; teaching the theory and practice of one or more disciplines at different educational levels; teaching and educating handicapped persons; providing various business, legal and social services; creating and performing works of art; providing spiritual guidance; preparing scientific papers and reports. Supervision of other workers may be included.

It should be noted that, depending on the specific tasks and degree of responsibility in executing them, as well as on the national educational and training requirements, it may be appropriate to classify some of the occupations that are identified here into Major group 3, Technicians and associate professionals. Such like cases are to be found in particular among teaching occupations, nursing occupations and social services occupations.

Occupations in this major group are classified into the following sub-major groups:
21 Physical, mathematical and engineering science professionals
22 Life science and health professionals
23 Teaching professionals
24 Other professionals
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3 Técnicos y profesionales de nivel medio

Technicians and associate professionals perform mostly technical and related tasks connected with research and the application of scientific or artistic concepts and operational methods, and government or business regulations, and teach at certain educational levels. Most occupations in this major group require skills at the third ISCO skill level.

Tasks performed by technicians and associate professionals usually include: undertaking and carrying out technical work connected with research and the application of concepts and operational methods in the fields of physical sciences including engineering and technology, life sciences including the medical profession, and social sciences and humanities. Tasks also include: teaching children at primary and pre primary levels; teaching and educating handicapped persons; initiating and carrying out various technical services related to trade, finance, administration, including administration of a number of government laws and regulations, and to social work; providing artistic and sports entertainment; executing some religious tasks. Supervision of other workers may be included.

Technicians and associate professionals may receive guidance from Senior government officials, Managers or Professionals.

It should be noted that, depending on the specific tasks and degree of responsibility in executing them, as well as on the national educational and training requirements, it may be appropriate to classify some of the occupations that are identified here into Major group 2, Professionals. Examples are to be found in particular among teaching occupations, nursing occupations and social services occupations.

Occupations in this major group are classified into the following sub-major groups:
31 Physical and engineering science associate professionals
32 Life science and health associate professionals
33 Teaching associate professionals
34 Other associate professionals
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4 Empleados de oficina

Clerks record, organise, store, compute and retrieve information related to the work in question, and perform a number of clerical duties especially in connection with money-handling operations, travel arrangements, requests for information, and appointments. Most occupations in this major group require skills at the second ISCO skill level.

Tasks performed by clerks usually include: stenography, typing, and operating word processors and other office machines; entering data into computers; carrying out secretarial duties; recording and computing numerical data; keeping records relating to stocks, production and transport; keeping records relating to passenger and freight transport; carrying out clerical duties in libraries; filing documents; carrying out duties in connection with mail services; preparing and checking material for printing; writing on behalf of illiterate persons; performing money-handling operations; dealing with travel arrangements; supplying information requested by clients and making appointments; operating a telephone switchboard. Supervision of other workers may be included.

Occupations in this major group are classified into the following sub-major groups:
41 Office clerks
42 Customer services clerks
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5 Trabajadores de los servicios y vendedores de comercios y mercados

Service workers and shop and market sales workers provide personal and protective services related to travel, housekeeping, catering, personal care, or protection against fire and unlawful acts, or they pose as models for artistic creation and display, or demonstrate and sell goods in wholesale or retail shops and similar establishments, as well as at stalls and on markets. Most occupations in this major group require skills at the second ISCO skill level.

Tasks performed by service workers and shop and market sales workers usually include: organisation and provision of services during travel; housekeeping; preparation and serving of food and beverages; child care; rudimentary nursing and related care at homes or in institutions; personal care, such as hairdressing or beauty treatment; companionship; astrology and fortune-telling; embalming; funeral arrangements; protection of individuals and property against fire and unlawful acts and enforcement of law and order; posing as models for advertising, artistic creation and display of goods; selling goods in wholesale or retail establishments, as well as at stalls and on markets; demonstrating goods to potential customers. Supervision of other workers may be included.

Occupations in this major group are classified into the following sub-major groups:
51 Personal and protective services workers
52 Models, salespersons and demonstrators
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6 Agricultores y trabajadores calificados agropecuarios y pesqueros

Skilled agricultural and fishery workers grow and harvest field or tree and shrub crops, gather wild fruits and plants, breed, tend or hunt animals, produce a variety of animal husbandry products, cultivate, conserve and exploit forests, breed or catch fish and cultivate or gather other forms of aquatic life in order to provide food, shelter and income for themselves and their households. Most occupations in this major group require skills at the second ISCO skill level.

Tasks performed by skilled agricultural and fishery workers usually include: preparing the soil; sowing, planting, spraying, fertilising and harvesting field crops; growing fruit and other tree and shrub crops; growing garden vegetables and horticultural products; gathering wild fruits and plants; breeding, raising, tending or hunting animals mainly to obtain meat, milk, hair, fur, skin, sericultural, apiarian or other products; cultivating, conserving and exploiting forests; breeding or catching fish; cultivating or gathering other forms of aquatic life; storing and carrying out some basic processing of their produce; selling their products to purchasers, marketing organisations or at markets. Supervision of other workers may be included.

Occupations in this major group are classified into the following sub-major groups:
61 Market-oriented skilled agricultural and fishery workers
62 Subsistence agricultural and fishery workers

Note
The division between the two sub-major groups in this major group, namely 61, Market-oriented skilled agricultural and fishery workers, and 62, Subsistence agricultural and fishery workers, should reflect differences in the degree of market orientation which are correlated with differences in organisation of work, quality control, use of commercial or high-yield seeds and fodder, use of traditional or modern techniques, irrigation, formal credit arrangements and degree and type of marketing arrangements for the products. Subsistence agricultural and fishery workers may market a part of their produce to obtain cash for purchasing basic goods, paying taxes, etc., but, as a rule, they do not have any of the advantages that go with formal credit or marketing arrangements.

Workers in agriculture and fishing with mainly managerial tasks should be classified into one of the following unit groups: 1210, Directors and chief executives; 1221, Production and operations department managers in agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing; or 1311, General managers in agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing. Workers who mainly operate agricultural and forestry machinery should be classified into Minor group 833, Agricultural and other mobile-plant operators. Workers with simple and routine tasks - such as helpers and labourers - which mainly entail the use of hand-held tools and some physical effort, and which require little or no previous experience and understanding of the work and only limited initiative or judgement, should be classified into Minor group 921, Agricultural, fishery and related labourers.
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7 Oficiales, operarios y artesanos artes mecánicas y otros oficios

Craft and related trades workers apply their specific knowledge and skills in the fields of mining and construction, form metal, erect metal structures, set machine tools, or make, fit, maintain and repair machinery, equipment or tools, carry out printing work as well as produce or process foodstuffs, textiles, or wooden, metal and other articles, including handicraft goods.

The work is carried out by hand and by hand-powered and other tools which are used to reduce the amount of physical effort and time required for specific tasks, as well as to improve the quality of the products. The tasks call for an understanding of all stages of the production process, the materials and tools used, and the nature and purpose of the final product. Most occupations in this major group require skills at the second ISCO skill level.

Tasks performed by craft and related trades workers usually include: extracting and working solid minerals; constructing, maintaining and repairing buildings and other structures; casting, welding and shaping metal; installing and erecting heavy metal structures, tackle and related equipment; making machinery, tools, equipment, and other metal articles; setting for operators, or setting and operating various machine tools; fitting, maintaining and repairing industrial machinery, including engines and vehicles, as well as electrical and electronic instruments and other equipment; making precision instruments, jewellery, household and other precious-metal articles, pottery, glass and related products; producing handicrafts; executing printing work; producing and processing foodstuffs and various articles made of wood, textiles, leather and related materials. Supervision of other workers may be included.

Occupations in this major group are classified into the following sub-major groups:
71 Extraction and building trades workers
72 Metal, machinery and related trades workers
73 Precision, handicraft, printing and related trades workers
74 Other craft and related trades workers

Note
Occupations are classified into Major group 8, Plant and machine operators and assemblers, if the tasks call mainly for experience with and an understanding of the machinery operated and monitored.

Occupations are classified into Major group 9, Elementary occupations, if the tasks are of a simple and routine nature, mainly entail the use of hand-held tools, some physical effort, little or no previous experience and understanding of the work, and limited initiative or judgement.
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8 Operadores de instalaciones y máquinas y montadores

Plant and machine operators and assemblers operate and monitor industrial and agricultural machinery and equipment on the spot or by remote control, drive and operate trains, motor vehicles and mobile machinery and equipment, or assemble products from component parts according to strict specifications and procedures.

The work mainly calls for experience with and an understanding of industrial and agricultural machinery and equipment as well as an ability to cope with machine-paced operations and to adapt to technological innovations. Most occupations in this major group require skills at the second ISCO skill level.

Tasks performed by plant and machine operators and assemblers usually include: operating and monitoring mining or other industrial machinery and equipment for processing metal, minerals, glass, ceramics, wood, paper, or chemicals, as well as operating and monitoring water-treating or electrical-power-generating installations, and related plant; operating and monitoring machinery and equipment used to produce articles made of metal, minerals, chemicals, rubber, plastics, wood, paper, textiles, fur, or leather, and which process foodstuffs and related products operating printing and bookbinding machines; driving and operating trains and motor vehicles; driving, operating and monitoring mobile industrial and agricultural machinery and equipment; assembling products from component parts according to strict specifications and procedures. Supervision of other workers may be included.

Occupations in this major group are classified into the following sub-major groups:
81 Stationary-plant and related operators
82 Machine operators and assemblers
83 Drivers and mobile-plant operators

Note
Occupations are classified into Major group 7, Craft and related trades workers if the tasks are carried out by hand and by hand-powered and other tools and call for an understanding of the work organisation, the materials and tools used, and the nature and purpose of the final product.

Occupations are classified into Major group 9, Elementary occupations if the tasks are of a simple and routine nature, mainly entail the use of hand-held tools, some physical effort, little or no previous experience and understanding of the work, and limited initiative or judgement.
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9 Trabajadores no calificados

Elementary occupations consist of simple and routine tasks which mainly require the use of hand-held tools and often some physical effort. Most occupations in this major group require skills at the first ISCO skill level.

Tasks performed by workers in elementary occupations usually include: selling goods in streets and public places, or from door to door; providing various street services; cleaning, washing, pressing; taking care of apartment houses, hotels, offices and other buildings; washing windows and other glass surfaces of buildings; delivering messages or goods; carrying luggage; doorkeeping and property watching; stocking vending machines or reading and emptying meters; collecting garbage; sweeping streets and similar places; performing various simple farming, fishing, hunting or trapping tasks performing simple tasks connected with mining, construction and manufacturing including product-sorting and simple hand-assembling of components; packing by hand; freight handling; pedalling or hand-guiding vehicles to transport passengers and goods; driving animal-drawn vehicles or machinery. Supervision of other workers may be included.

Occupations in this major group are classified into the following sub-major groups:
91 Sales and services elementary occupations
92 Agricultural, fishery and related labourers
93 Labourers in mining, construction, manufacturing and transport
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0 Fuerzas armadas

Members of the armed forces are those personnel who are currently serving in the armed forces, including auxiliary services, whether on a voluntary or compulsory basis, and who are not free to accept civilian employment. Included are regular members of the army, navy, air force and other military services, as well as conscripts enroled for military training or other service for a specified period, depending on national requirements. Excluded are persons in civilian employment of government establishments concerned with defence issues; police (other than military police); customs inspectors and members of border or other armed civilian services; persons who have been temporarily with drawn from civilian life for a short period of military training or retraining, according to national requirements, and members of military reserves not currently on active service. Reference to a skill level has not been used in defining the scope of this major group.

Occupations in this major group are classified into the following sub-major, minor and unit groups:
01 Armed forces
011 Armed forces
0110 Armed forces
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[ International Standard Classification of Occupations de la OIT ]
 
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